How to Build a Web Application Using Java?

INDUKALA K A | February 07, 2023

How to Build a Web Application Using Java?

How can we create web applications with Java? According to Stack Overflow and Statista, Java is one of the most commonly used programming languages ​​for building web applications. As most of you probably already know, Java is a high-level, object-oriented, class-based programming language. It is built with minimal dependencies. After more than two decades of release, Java is still loved by programmers.

Since Java applications are compiled in bytecode, they can run on any JVM (Java Virtual Machine) regardless of the operating system and the architecture of the computer system, thus ensuring portability. Additionally, Java provides Servlet and JSP technologies that help developers easily build and deploy web applications on the server. Like other languages, Java also has frameworks like Spring and Hibernate to simplify the web application development process.

What is a Web Application?

Software programs that can be accessed using any web browser are called Web applications. Typically, the front end of web software is created using scripting languages ​​such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, which are supported by almost all web browsers. In contrast, the backend is created using any programming language such as Java, Python, Php and a database. Unlike device-based apps, there is no specific device to build internet apps; we can use any supported IDE to create web applications.

Let's look at the technical terms we need to be familiar with before developing Java web applications.

Defining Java Web Application Technologies

Before developing any web application it is necessary to set up Java, IDE for writing code, Server (Tomcat) as web container for Servlet, and Database (MySQL or Oracle) on your gadget properly.

1. Java IDE

A Java IDE is an integrated development environment for Java programming; many also provide functionality for other languages, and an IDE typically provides a code editor, compiler or interpreter, and debugger that developers access through a unified Graphical User Interface (GUI).

2. Java Servlet API

Servlets provide URL mapping and request handling functionality in your Java web applications. They are used to handle requests received from the web server, process the request, render the response, and send the response back to the web server. In Java, we use servlets to create web applications.

3. JavaServer Pages(JSP)

Java Server Pages or JSP is a technical specialty that simplifies the development of dynamic web applications. It also allows developers to simultaneously add servlet code snippets to text documents. JSP consists of static facts that can be expressed in plain text format and JSP factors that determine how a web page creates dynamic content.

4. JSP Standard Tag Library

JSTL stands for JSP Standard Tag Library. JSTL is a standard tag library that provides tags that control the behavior of JSP pages. JSTL tags can be used for iterations and control statements, internationalization, SQL, etc.

5. JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces or Jakarta Server Faces technology consists of a set of APIs for marking up user interface components and managing their state, and a JSP custom tag library for expressing JSF interfaces in JSP pages. Java Server Faces is designed to be flexible, taking advantage of current web and user interface standards, without restricting developers to a certain protocol, system or language.


The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API provides generic data access. Using the JDBC API, developers can access any source of information, from spreadsheets to relational databases and flat files. Java uses two packages java.sql and javax.sql to connect, manipulate and receive records from databases.

7. Java Persistence API

The Java Persistence API provides an object-to-relational mapping tool to help developers manage relational data in Java web applications. JPA internally defines object-relational mapping and standardizes these mapped objects using XML or annotations to map objects into database tables.

How to Create a Web Application using Java?

Before developing a web application, Java, IDE to write code (Eclipse or Netbeans), server (Tomcat) as web container for servlets and database (MySQL or Oracle) should be properly configured on your machine.

Tomcat can be configured with Eclipse to facilitate application development and deployment. In Eclipse Preferences, select Server Runtime Environments and find your Tomcat server version. For the runtime environment, specify the apache tomcat directory location and JRE information. Create a server with useful resources to access the server interface. That's it, we are ready to create and run our first servlet on the Tomcat server.

Now open the Eclipse IDE and select File > New > Dynamic Web Project. Enter the project name FirstServletProject, use the default project location, then click Next, check Generate web.xml deployment descriptor and click the Finish button.

Now to create the servlet, select File > New > Servlet and click the Finish button, this will generate the skeleton code for the servlet.

Once the servlet is created, you can add HTML using the GET method to invoke the HTTP request shown below and run the servlet.

    package com.journaldev.first;

    import java.o.PrintWriter;
    import java.util.Date;

    import javax.servlet.ServletException;
    import javax.servlet.annotation.WebInitParam;
    import javax.servlet.annotation.WebServlet;
    import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
    import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
    import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
        * Servlet implementation class FirstServlet

    @WebServlet (description = "My First Servlet", urlPatterns = {"
        /FirstServlet" , "/FirstServlet. do"), initParams =
        {@webInitParam(name="id" , value="") ,@webInitParam(name="name"
        „value= "ABC" )})

    public class FirstServlet extends HttpServlet {
        private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
        public static final String HTML_START = " < html>< body>";
        public static final String HTML_END = "";

        * @see HttpServlet#HttpServlet)

        public FirstServlet ) {
            super ();
            // TODO Auto-generated constructor stub

        * @see HttpServlet#doGet (HttpServletRequest request,
            HttpServletResponse response)

        protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest request,
        HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException,
        IOException {
            PrintWriter out = response.getWriter();
            Date date = new Date();
            out.println(HTML_START + "< h2>Hi There!< br/>< h3>Date="
                +date +"" + HTML_END) ;

        * @see HttpServlet#doPost(HttpServletRequest request,
            HttpServletResponse response)

        protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest request,
            HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException
        IOException {
                // TODO Auto-generated method stub

Now, while running our servlet, several errors are shown because the servlet-api jar file is not added. So we will add the jar file by right clicking on the project and then going to Build Path > Set Build Path > Add External JAR option.

From here you can navigate to the directory where the server is installed, select the servlet-api.jar file, click Open to continue, then Apply and Close to add the jar file to the project.

Java Build Path

Although servlets are a good choice at first, they are difficult to inspect and maintain large responses containing dynamic data. It is for this reason that JSP was introduced. The JSP technology is also server-side and has the same characteristics as HTML, but it can also add dynamic content if needed. Because JSP is similar to HTML, it is easy to write and suitable for presenting data.

Using the JSP code in the code below, we get the same result as the servlet code.

    <%@page import="java.util.Date"%>
    <%@page language="java" contentType=-"text/html; charset=US-ASCIT" pageEncoding="US-ASCII"%> < br />
    < html>
        < head>
            < meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=US-ASCII">
            < title>Hello
        < body>
            < h2>Hi There!< br />
            < h3>Date=<%= new Date() %>

To run the app, you need to right-click on the project and select Run-> Run on Server option to run it on the server.

Run the Project

Loading the application will take some time. But when using a JSP or Servlet file, the output will be the same: "Hello!" with date and time.

Project Output

In this section, I mentioned how to create web applications using Java Servlets. Java makes this possible through different frameworks like Spring and Spring Boot which help us to boost web applications easily. These frameworks limit the workload of the developer.

Why Choose Sanesquare for Web Application Development?

If you want the Best Web application for your company, you are in the correct place. Because Sanesquare Technologies provides the best services for web development, and for the following reason Sanesquare is the best choice for developing web applications.

  • Created the best by the experts
  • On time delivery
  • Complete Web Development Process with Support and Maintenance

In conclusion, building a web application using Java involves several steps, including setting up the development environment, defining the architecture, and choosing the appropriate framework. Java provides a rich set of libraries and frameworks that make it easy to develop web applications that are scalable, secure, and reliable. The choice of framework will depend on the specific requirements of the application and the development team's expertise. Regardless of the framework, Java web applications can be developed quickly and efficiently, making it an excellent choice for both small and large projects.

As one of the leading Web Application Development Companies in India, we can help you to develop a web application for your business. If you need more information, do not hesitate to reach out to us.

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