Java 8 is one of the Long Term Support (LTS) versions released in 2014. Because Java releases new versions every two years, why do the vast majority of programmers continue to use Java 8?There could be numerous reasons for this. Streams, functional programming, and lambdas are some of the highlights of Java 8.
The Streams API was introduced to perform various operations on bulk data in a more efficient way. The Stream API will allow sequential as well as parallel execution. The Collection interface has stream() and parallelStream() methods to generate sequential and parallel streams.
Java Time API
Many shortcomings in java.util.Date and java.util.Calendar are addressed in the java.time package. LocalTime, LocalDate, and LocalDateTime, ZonedDateTime, Period, and Duration are various classes in the java.time package.
The lambda expression assists us in writing functional code. It uses an expression to provide a clear and concise way to implement the SAM interface (Single Abstract Method). It is very useful in collection libraries for iterating, filtering, and extracting data.
A functional interface is one with exactly one abstract method. Single Abstract Method (SAM) Interface is another name for a functional interface. We usually mark a functional interface with the @FunctionalInterface annotation, but it is not mandatory to do so. The @FunctionalInterface annotation prevents the creation of more than one abstract method.
Optional is a new class introduced in Java 8. It is a public final class that is used in Java applications to handle NullPointerExceptions. To use this class, you must import the java.util package. It provides methods for determining the presence of a value for a specific variable.
Collectors is a class that is a subclass of Object.It supports reduction operations such as grouping elements into collections, summarizing elements based on various criteria, and so on. They are often used with Stream to collect the filtered result set into a new collection.
Default Interface Methods
In a typical abstraction-based design, where an interface has one or more implementations, if one or more methods are added to the interface, all implementations are forced to implement them as well. Otherwise, the design will simply fail.
Default methods are preceded with the default keyword and are implicitly public like other interface methods, but the difference is that a default method will have an implementation. Any addition to the already defined behaviour of an interface can be satisfied using default methods.
Static Interface Method
In Java 8, we can also define and implement static methods on interfaces. Like the static method in classes, the interface static method can be called using the interface name followed by the method name. A static method can be called from within another static or default method.
StringJoiner is a new java.util package class that allows you to create new strings from character sequences and delimiters.We can also append prefixes and suffixes to the string. The StringJoiner class also provides various methods like merge(), length(), etc.
In Java 8, a new feature called "method reference" is introduced. Method references are used to refer to functional interface methods. It is a short and simple lambda expression. Every time you use a lambda expression to simply refer to a method, you can replace it with a method reference.
Method references can be of three types :
Static method reference
Instance method reference
Java 8 provides the forEach method to iterate over elements in a collection. It is represented by the Stream and iterable interfaces.forEach basically performs the given action for each element of the iterable until all elements have been processed or the action throws an exception.
All of these features, combined with Java's existing strengths (such as platform independence and broad ecosystem), have made Java 8 an attractive choice for many developers and contributed to its adoption. If you need more clarification about the Java 8, you can feel free to contact Sanesquare Technologies for more details.
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